International Agreements On Biodiversity Conservation

The Convention entered into force on 29 December 1993 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992. It has two supplementary agreements, the Cartagena Protocol and the Nagoya Protocol. An example of a BC country is Indonesia. According to the Biodiversity Fund Benefits Index (World Bank 2008), Indonesia`s relative biodiversity potential is very high; However, conservation activities are relatively costly for the government. Indonesia is one of the richest countries in terms of biodiversity. Nevertheless, the opportunity costs of nature protection are very high, as the industry in this country is developing rapidly and putting pressure on its nature. Category bc reflects countries such as Australia. This country also has relatively high advantages in terms of biodiversity preservation. Nevertheless, the opportunity cost of nature protection in Australia is relatively lower. An example of a bC country is Mali, where the biodiversity potential in terms of species represented and habitat diversity is low, but the cost of nature protection activities is high. Finally, category bc reflects countries such as Finland, where biodiversity values and biodiversity conservation costs are relatively low. The results of the scenarios indicate that Scenario II, including transfers, has the greatest potential benefits of cooperation and conservation.

Even if the maximum size of a stable coalition is not changed if transfers are included, all countries are willing to individually transfer a portion of their profits to the country with the highest level of biodiversity (C12) to ensure that it is part of a two-member agreement. Coalitions of 2 members, including C12, have the best payment in the world. Not surprisingly, we find that trade is more efficient when the countries involved are different. Since its initial signature in 1973, 183 countries have acceded (as of May 2017) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The objective of the Convention is to control trade in endangered species, preserve species and ensure international cooperation in trade in animal and plant species. Table 4 shows a comparison between the results obtained in the three scenarios of asymmetric countries within their upper natural limit of conservation -(bar{q}) without transfers and the model when the optimal transfer rule is applied. In the previous sections, we have developed a non-cooperative playful model of an IEA for the protection of biodiversity. In this regard, we have made a number of assumptions to simplify the assessment of the coalition`s stability analysis. In this section, we say the possible extensions of the model, in which some of these assumptions are abandoned. We deal with the following extensions: (1) an alternative playful approach for the analysis of coalition stability, (2) the integration of empirical results into the theoretical model and (3) the use of alternative hypotheses for our species protection model. For the base model with a stable coalition of 2 members, the value of the CGIV index is 0.072.

This means that 7.2% of the potential benefits of full cooperation can be achieved through the conclusion of a stable agreement with two members. We also calculate a CGI to express the relative gain in terms of overall custody. The definition of global biodiversity CGI is analogous to the CGIV: the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially The Aquatic Area, was concluded in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971. It is therefore one of the oldest international nature protection agreements. The Ramsar Convention entered into force in Switzerland in 1976. The secretariat of the Ramsar Convention is located in Gland (canton of Vaud). The Convention recognized for the first time in international law that the preservation of biodiversity is « a common concern of humanity » and that it is an integral part of the development process. . . .

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